Are you considering opening an individual retirement account (IRA) to either replace or supplement your employer-sponsored plan? If so, it can help to know the difference between 401(k) and IRA plans. The good news is that these differences are fairly easy to understand.
Anybody who has an income from work and is younger than 70 1/2 can set up and save money in a traditional IRA. And how you invest the money you put in an IRA is up to you, meaning you can be as aggressive or conservative as you want. You can also open an IRA with most kinds of financial services companies, including life insurance companies, banks and brokerage firms.
Unlike an IRA, a 401(k) is only available through an employer. And although 401(k) plans are very common, employers aren't required to offer them, so it's possible you don't have access to one at all.
Let's take a closer look at the specifics of each plan type.
What Are an IRA's Unique Features?
Traditional IRAs, which are owned only by the contributing individual and not an employer, have a $5,500 limit (or $6,500 for people 50 and older) on annual contributions. Your traditional IRA contributions may be tax-deductible. The deduction may be limited if you or your spouse is covered by a retirement plan at work and your income exceeds certain levels. But there's no income test for IRA contribution deductibility if you don't have access to a retirement plan at work.
You can make contributions for each year as late as the tax-filing deadline for that year's taxes. Contributions can be made to your traditional IRA for each year that you receive compensation prior to age 70 1/2.
However, if you take any distribution from your IRA before you turn 59 1/2, the IRS will charge you a 10 percent penalty. There are some exceptions to that rule, though, such as if you need to pay for medical expenses that exceed 10 percent of your gross income and are not covered by a health plan.
How Is a 401(k) Different?
As we mentioned, 401(k) plans are only available through an employer. They allow you to set aside much more of your own earnings (up to $18,500 a year, or $24,500 if you're at least 50) than you could in a IRA account. Some 401(k)s feature matching employer contributions, which employers sometimes base off the amount each employee contributes. For example, a 50 percent matching contribution means that if you set aside $4,000 of your own money, your employer would kick in an additional $2,000.
Some 401(k)s also have loan provisions that would allow you to borrow money from your own account and pay it back with interest, usually within five years. You may owe taxes on any money you borrow, however, and the IRS generally limits these loans to $50,000 or half of your vested balance (whichever is smaller).
The plans allow for as much as $55,000 in total annual savings in your account, counting both your contributions from your own income and any extra money your employer puts in. The deadline for annual contributions to a 401(k) plan is December 31, compared to the tax-filing deadline that applies to IRAs.
A feature of both traditional 401(k) and IRA retirement plans is that when you begin taking money out, it's all taxed as ordinary income, even if some of your retirement savings actually came from capital gains, or the increase in the value of the contributions. (With investments outside of a retirement plan, capital gains are usually taxed at a lower rate.) As with any investment, however, increases in value are not guaranteed, and there's always a chance of losing value. Still, with 401(k)s and IRAs, you may have the option to postpone your tax bill until you start taking money out (depending on your plan's documentation).
Making Sense of the Roth Option
There's another category of IRA and 401(k) known as Roth plans. With Roth retirement accounts, you pay taxes on your contributions as you make them. You don't take a tax deduction for the money you put into a Roth plan each year, but the contributions you make can be taken out at retirement without being subject to income tax, since you've already paid. (You must have had the Roth account for at least five years, though).
If you're eligible to participate in a 401(k) plan and your employer makes matching contributions, you might consider contributing enough to be eligible for the full match. If your employer's plan doesn't offer the investment choices you're looking for, however, you could always consider looking for an IRA better suited to your personal financial goals. You could also consider meeting with a qualified financial adviser to help determine whether an IRA, a 401(k) or a balance of both plan types will fit best into your overall financial strategy.